While healthcare costs have increased significantly since the midth century, social reforms are not to be blamed for all costs and should not be solely blamed for future costs.
Technology and Engineering in the American Experience: A Survey of Literature By T he simultaneity of the American and the Industrial revolutions during the late-eighteenth century set Americans on a path that embraced technology and engineering as a major part of their national identity.
Progress in political liberty seemed to go hand in hand with improved scientific knowledge, advances in technology, and engineering achievements.
Technological progress reduced labor, enriched leisure, improved health, and brought forth abundance. In the rising tide of democratic-capitalism, technology was the fuel and lubricant that propelled society forward, and where Americans encountered obstacles, they most often turned to technology to "fix" them.
Thus, wherever one looks in American history, technological themes are evident. During the revolutionary era, military necessity and the need to build a strong and independent nation sustained technological change, and settlement of the vast North American continental landmass that followed during the nineteenth century spawned development of powerful technologies and inspired remarkable engineering achievements.
Bythe rise of a complex urban-industrial society seemed to be the logical outcome of Americans technological enthusiasm, and subsequently, a system-center technological society has characterized American life. Historians of technology have produced a rich body of historical literature exploring these and many other topics.
Interested readers will find numerous works on specific inventions, machines, and technological and engineering achievements that comprise what scholars call the "internal" history of technology.
Equally numerous are studies that explore the context of specific technological developments — the resources, social conditions, and the motives, values, and worldviews of the historical actors who shaped technology. Finally, there are many "external" histories of technology — social histories, if you will — which focus on the cultural context of technology and pay little attention to questions of technological design.
Foundations P rior to the nineteenth century, Europeans and Native Americans collided in North America, creating a diverse technological milieu of tools, crafts, and inventive activity. While historians generally have studied the technologies of the Europeans, Native American technologies influenced the lives of colonists.
Every American school child knows the tale of the Pawtuxet Indian Squanto teaching the Pilgrims the proper technique for cultivating maize.
Carolyn Merchant, Ecological Revolutions: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England New York, each offer a great deal more insight into the technological lives of people in colonial New England. Pyne, Fire in America: A number of examples of technological interchange between natives and European immigrants during this era have also been explored.
Calloway, New Worlds for All: Malone, The Skulking Way of War: Technology and Tactics among the Indians of New England Baltimore, examines how Native Americans quickly discovered the advantages of firearms and how European colonists learned forest warfare strategies and techniques from the Indians, and Barbara Graymont, The Iroquois in the American Revolution Syracuse, explicitly discusses military technologies.
The ready availability of resources that were relatively scarce in Europe — in particular, wood — exemplified early American technology. More recently Thomas R. For metals, a less important story than wood at the time, but one that grew rapidly later, see James A.
Waterpower provided the bulk of inanimate energy in colonial America for sawmills, iron mills, and the almost ubiquitous flouring or gristmills.
Reynolds, Stronger than a Hundred Men: A craft tradition supported technology in early America. Products were made one at a time, the entire process carried out by a skilled master artisan, perhaps with the assistance of apprentices. McGaw, Early American Technology: There is a vast literature focusing on this topic, among which Joseph A.
The Maritime Communities of Colonial Massachusetts, New York, deftly describes the community-based character of maritime activities. The American Revolution and subsequent independence from Great Britain stimulated inventive activity in America at the end of the eighteenth century.
Neil Longley York, Mechanical Metamorphosis: Technological Change in Revolutionary America Westport, CT, connects the quest for political independence with that of technological independence through topics such as home manufactures, the munitions industry, the Pennsylvania Rifle, and fortifications.
Brown, Firearms in Colonial America: By the end of the eighteenth century, technology was on the cusp of becoming a defining part of American life. Within another century it had become just that.Sep 03, · Technological innovations tend to raise labour productivity by allowing the existing workforce to do more with less, by replacing existing workers with technology (with an obvious downside, as I will come to later), and they also usher in new products and processes that open up new sources of growth.
Sep 05, · The ICT sector is, and is expected to remain, one of the largest employers. In the US alone, computer and information technology jobs are expected to grow by 22% up to , creating , new jobs.
In Australia, building and running the new super-fast National Broadband Network will support 25, jobs annually. Naturally, the growth in different segments is uneven. Still, others believed the technological innovations of the Second Industrial Revolution was the unstoppable culmination of modern civilization propelling the fulfillment of Manifest Destiny.
Questions of this nature were not new in American history. technological advances in our society today is in the field of human medicine and health sciences. This field deals with the maintenance, prolongment, and restoration of human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease and injury.
America on the Move explores the role of transportation in American history. Visit communities wrestling with the changes that new transportation networks brought.
See cities change, suburbs expand, and farms and factories become part of regional, national, and international economies. Meet people. This group also includes the advances in medical knowledge and who has argued that America’s history as a nation happens to coincide with a rare moment in technological history now nearing.