The driver of the car on the right judges a safe path through obstacles based on their movements and perceived stopping distances. They perceive the world around them using lasers, radar, GPS and other sensors, in addition to their on-board cameras. So their perceptions can be very different from those presented to human eyes. To share the road safely, each side will need to understand the other much more intimately than they do now.
Editor, Creation magazine Probably the most well known case of atavism is found in the whales. According to the standard phylogenetic tree, whales are known to be the descendants of terrestrial mammals that had hindlimbs.
Thus, we expect the possibility that rare mutant whales might occasionally develop atavistic hindlimbs. In fact, there are many cases where whales have been found with rudimentary atavistic hindlimbs in the wild see Figure 2.
Hindlimbs have been found in baleen whales Sleptsovhumpback whales Andrews and in many specimens of sperm whales Abel ; Berzinp. Most of these examples are of whales with femurs, tibia, and fibulae; however, some even include feet with complete digits.
For example, Figure 2. These bones are the remnants of one of two symmetrical hind-limbs found protruding from the ventral side of a female humpback whale, captured by a whaling ship from the Kyuquot Station near the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, in July Two officials of the Consolidated Whaling Company were understandably impressed by this discovery, and they removed one of the legs and presented the skeletal remains to the Provincial Museum in Victoria, B.
The other leg was evidently taken as a "souvenir" by crew members of the whaling ship. Andrews reported the findings, along with photographs of the whale from the whaling crew, in American Museum Novitates, the journal of the AMNH. Andrews identified in the remains a shrunken cartiliginous femur, tibia, tarsus, and metatarsal.
Both legs initially were over four feet long and covered in normal blubber and skin. For comparison, an average adult female humpback is around 45 feet long.
The femur, composed of unossified cartilage, had shrunken from 15 inches to 4. When attached to the whale, the femur was completely inside the body cavity and attached to the pelvic rudiments humpback whales have vestiges of a pelvis inside the abdominal wall.
This extraordinary finding is unlikely to be repeated, as the International Whaling Commission gave humpback whales worldwide protection status inafter sixty years of uncontrolled human predation had decimated the population. The hind-flippers of a bottlenose dolphin found in Japanese coastal waters.
Yellow arrows indicate the location of a well-formed atavistic set of hind limbs. Images modified from publicity photos from the Taiji Whaling Museum.
On October 28,Japanese fishermen captured a four-finned dolphin off the coast of western Japan, and donated the whale to the Taiji Whaling Museum where it is currently being studied. This bottlenose dolphin has an extra set of hindlimbs, two well-formed palm-sized flippers that move and flap like the normal fore-flippers see Figure 2.
As with other atavistic structures, these limbs are likely the result of a rare mutation that allows an underlying, yet cryptic, developmental pathway to become reactivated. These limbs are prima facie evidence of the dolphin's four-limbed ancestry, as predicted from the common ancestry of dolphins and other land-dwelling mammals.
Newborn babies born with tails Primarily due to intense medical interest, humans are one of the best characterized species and many developmental anomalies are known. There are several human atavisms that reflect our common genetic heritage with other mammals.
One of the most striking is the existence of the rare "true human tail" also variously known as "coccygeal process", "coccygeal projection", "caudal appendage", and "vestigial tail".
More than cases of human tails have been reported in the medical literature. Less than one third of the well-documented cases are what are medically known as "pseudo-tails" Dao and Netsky ; Dubrow et al.
Pseudo-tails are not true tails; they are simply lesions of various types coincidentally found in the caudal region of newborns, often associated with the spinal column, coccyx, and various malformations.
In contrast, the true atavistic tail of humans results from incomplete regression of the most distal end of the normal embryonic tail found in the developing human fetus see Figure 2.
Though formally a malformation, the true human tail is usually benign in nature Dubrow et al. The true human tail is characterized by a complex arrangement of adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of longitudinally arranged striated muscle in the core, blood vessels, nerve fibres, nerve ganglion cells, and specialized pressure sensing nerve organs Vater-Pacini corpuscles.
It is covered by normal skin, replete with hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands Dao and Netsky ; Dubrow et al.
True human tails range in length from about one inch to over 5 inches long on a newborn babyand they can move via voluntary striped muscle contractions in response to various emotional states Baruchin et al. Although human tails usually lack skeletal structures some medical articles have claimed that true tails never have vertebraeseveral human tails have also been found with cartilage and up to five, well-developed, articulating vertebrae see Figure 2.
However, caudal vertebrae are not a necessary component of mammalian tails. Contrary to what is frequently reported in the medical literature, there is at least one known example of a primate tail that lacks vertebrae, as found in the rudimentary two-inch-long tail of Macaca sylvanus the "Barbary ape" Hillp.
True human tails are rarely inherited, though several familial cases are known Dao and Netsky ; Ikpeze and Onuigbo ; Touraine Human adaptation regarding food takes place through three primary mechanisms; genotypic, phenotype, and socio-cultural changes. Genotypic adaptation is one way in which people adapt to food, as form of genetic evolution.
One explanation and example of genotypic evolution is .
IN , at Tangalooma, off the coast of Queensland, people began to throw fish into the water for the local wild dolphins to eat. In , the dolphins began to feed the humans, throwing fish up.
Parasitism. Three general environments are available for life as we know it: terrestrial, aquatic and grupobittia.com definition, parasites are those animals which occupy the last niche, i.e. live in or on another species, their grupobittia.comtism is a form of symbiosis, an intimate relationship between two .
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. Although this essay consists almost entirely of two quotations taken directly from the passage, the writer does show an understanding of two of Bogard’s main points—darkness is crucial to humans and to animals—by selecting and briefly summarizing two important lines of text.
UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS HUMAN RESOURCES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT – Vol. II – Ecological Diversity and Modern Human Adaptations - S. Stinson ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) climate on a global scale is the case of skin color as an adaptation that evolved as a.