But Romer himself uses "Ramesses," i. Since the modern practices are all idiosyncratic, Romer's inconsistency here is not surprising. Earlier Egyptologists had often used the Greek names, instead of linguistic speculation, but the trend now has been -- and I follow it myself in these pages -- to try a give something like what the contemporary Egyptian forms would have been, or at least something with a connection to the ancient living language.
Definition[ edit ] Pyxis made out of "Egyptian blue": Imported to Italy from northern Syria, it was produced BC. Shown at Altes Museum in Berlin Egyptian blue is a synthetic blue pigment made up of a mixture of silicalimecopperand an alkali.
Its color is due to a calcium -copper tetrasilicate CaCuSi4O10 of the same composition as the naturally occurring mineral cuprorivaite.
It was made in Egypt during the third millennium BC, and is the first synthetic pigment produced there, continuing in use until the end of the Greco-Roman period BC— AD. It is also sometimes referred to in Egyptological literature as blue frit.
Some have argued that this is an erroneous term that should be reserved Egyptian art history essays use to describe the initial phase of glass or glaze production,  while others argue that Egyptian blue is a frit in both the fine and coarse form since it is a product of solid state reaction.
It is unclear whether the pigment's existence elsewhere was a result of parallel invention or evidence of the technology's spread from Egypt to those areas. History and background[ edit ] Egyptian blue Egyptian blue ceramic ware, New Kingdom BC The ancient Egyptians held the color blue in very high regard and were eager to present it on many media and in a variety of forms.
They also desired to imitate the semiprecious stones turquoise and lapis lazuliwhich were valued for their rarity and stark blue color. Use of naturally occurring minerals, such as azuriteto acquire this blue, was impractical, as these minerals were rare and difficult to work.
The Egyptians developed a wide range of pigment varieties, including what is now known as Egyptian blue, which was the first of its color at the time of its development.
This accomplishment was due to the advancement of Egypt as a settled agricultural society. This stable and established civilization encouraged the growth of a nonlabor workforce, including clerics and the Egyptian theocracy.
Egyptian pharaohs were patrons of the arts, and consequently were a stimulus for the advancement of pigment technology. Its use continued throughout the Late period, and Greco-Roman period, only dying out in the fourth century AD, when the secret to its manufacture was lost.
Lime is necessary for the production, as well, but probably lime-rich sand was used. Finally, only at the beginning of the 19th century was interest renewed in learning more about its manufacture when it was investigated by Sir Humphry Davy in  and others such as W.
Composition and manufacture[ edit ] Several experiments have been carried out by scientists and archaeologists interested in analyzing the composition of Egyptian blue and the techniques used to manufacture it.
From the analysis of a number of samples from Egypt and elsewhere, the weight percentage of the materials used to obtain Egyptian blue in antiquity was determined to usually range within these amounts: Following a number of experiments, Tite et al. First, the ingredients are heated, and the result is a coarse-textured product.
This is then ground to a fine powder and water is added. These two stages possibly were needed to produce a paste that was fine enough for the production of small objects.
Coarse-textured Egyptian blue, though, would not have gone through the second stage. Since it is usually found in the form of slabs in the dynastic periods and balls in the Greco-Roman periodthese could have either been awaiting to be processed through a second stage, where they would be ground and finely textured, or they would have been ground for use as a blue pigment.
Coarse Egyptian blue was relatively thick in form, due to the large clusters of crystals which adhere to the unreacted quartz. This clustering results in a dark blue color that is the appearance of coarse Egyptian blue. Alternatively, fine-textured Egyptian blue consists of smaller clusters that are uniformly interspersed between the unreacted quartz grains and tends to be light blue in color.
It depends on the level of alkali added to the mixture, so with more alkali, more glass formed, and the more diluted the appearance.
Too much of the copper ingredients results in excesses of copper oxides cuprite and tenorite. The only evidence cited is by Jakcsh et al.
Its presence in Egyptian blue indicates that quartz sand, rather than flint or chert, was used as the silica source. This contrasts with the source of silica used for glass-making at Qantir New Kingdom Ramesside sitewhich is quartz pebbles and not sand.
The source of copper could have either been a copper ore such as malachitefilings from copper ingots, or bronze scrap and other alloys. Prior to the New Kingdom, evidence is scarce as to which copper source was being used, but it is believed to have been copper ores.
During the New Kingdom, evidence has been found for the use of copper alloys, such as bronze, due to the presence of varying amounts of tin, arsenic, or lead found in the Egyptian blue material.
However, no copper ores have been found with these amounts of tin oxide. Sources of alkali could either have been natron from areas such as Wadi Natroun and El-Kab, or plant ash.
By measuring the amounts of potash and magnesia in the samples of Egyptian blue, it is generally possible to identify which source of alkali had been used, since the plant ash contains higher amounts of potash and magnesia than the natron.By Patrick Hunt – A “fish story” is often perceived as a tall tale, a narrative with “fishy” circumstances.
If not an outright result of something incredible like “Jonah and the Whale”, a dubious stretching of the truth may be amusing but modern ichthyological science has somewhat tarnished the Egyptian . Egyptian Streets is an independent, young, and grass roots news media organization aimed at providing readers with an alternate depiction of events that occur on Egyptian and Middle Eastern streets, and to establish an engaging social platform for readers to discover and discuss the various issues that impact the region.
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