Both families provided popes and kings, but byneither family wielded any political power. The Borgias disappeared from the stage of Italian influence at the beginning of the 16th century and inthe last of the Medici dynasty, Gian Gastone died. Considering the power these families wielded in the 14th and 15th centuries, I was curious as to how their reign ended.
By Charlie Stross Let's ignore, for the moment, the point that fiction is an exploration of human interior spaces, and that sometimes a spaceship or a princess is a metaphor; science fiction and fantasy are genres famous for their departure from the plane of mundanity, and usually a spaceship is just a form of transport between inhabited worlds There is a term of art that developed early on in the field of SF criticism: When we read a work of fiction we are taking, as a given, statements that build upon one another to construct a cunningly plausible lie.
We suspend our natural disbelief in things we know to be untrue, for dramatic effect cannot withstand the scorn reserved for falsehood. However, there is a limit different for everyone to the number of lies we can stack Jenga-style atop one another before our disbelief can no longer be held in abeyance: Disbelief can be shattered easily by authorial mistakes—one of the commonest is to have a protagonist positioned as a sympathetic viewpoint character for the reader behave in a manner that is not only unsympathetic but inconsistent with the protagonist's parameters.
But there are plenty of other ways to do it. Certain patterns are guaranteed to make me throw a book at the wall these days or they would, if I wasn't doing almost all my reading these days on an iPador at least stop reading on the spot.
One such pattern is sometimes described as "the seven deadly words"; when you can say of a story "I am not interested in these people," the author has failed to hook you on the human content of their drama, and unless they're compellingly brilliant on another, inhuman, level—for example, the works of Olaf Stapledon or some of the works of Greg Egan—then that's it, game over.
Another pattern is "this is pointless and tedious" although it's even harder to define than "lack's human engagement"and a third might be "this makes no sense" on any level, including deliberate surrealism. But then we get to more specific matters: I am talking about books here.
Asteroidal gravel banging against the hull of a spaceship. That pock-marked potato, asteroid Ida, is just under sixty kilometers long.
You could fit London onto about half of its surface area, with room left over. Asteroids are not close together—bodies wider than 1km are, on average, about ,km apart—more than twice the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
Smaller bodies tend to be gravitationally captured by larger ones over time we're talking billions of years here ; did you wonder where that rash of craters on Ida came from?
If you think of that scene from "The Empire Strikes Back" when you think of asteroid belts you are thinking of a whole bundle of nope. But they also originate a whole long way further out. While there's a lot of mass in the Kuiper belt possibly enough to match a small to medium sized planet, unlike the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter the volume of space involved is vast—double-digit light-hours across.
One light-hour, the distance light travels in an hour, is 1. Over a billion kilometers.
If you set out to drive that distance in your SUV at highway speeds, it'd take you roughly years. Now multiply by a factor of But basically unless your spaceship is parked on top of a frickin' comet approaching perihelion you are not going to get dust or gravel pinging off the hull Newton's Second Law, for dummies.
Notice the huge distances I aluded to above? Well, to get between planet A and planet B in anything approximating reasonable human time spans, you need to go fast.
And if you go fast, your velocity relative to the bodies around you is also high. In event of an inelastic collision the kinetic energy transfer is proprtional to the square of your velocity; and this has drastic consequences for space ships.
Suppose you're in low Earth orbit and you hit a piece of space junk, for example a screw that's fallen off someone else's ship. It's traveling in pretty much the same orbit as you, but inclined at 30 degrees.
What happens is you get a happy fun experience much like being hit by a bullet from a high-calibre sniper's rifle, because I can't be bothered to do the trig here it's packing a velocity component angled across your path at a goodly fraction of orbital velocity, and at orbital velocity a kilogram of water packs kinetic energy equal to about ten times its mass in exploding TNT.
You know what a high-speed car crash looks like, right? Space ships travel a lot faster than that: Human bodies are basically squishy sacks of goopy grease and water emulsions held together by hydrogen bonds and disulphide bridges between protein molecules and glommed onto some big lumps of high-grade chalk.
We evolved in a forgiving, water-dominated low-velocity world where evolution didn't bequeath us nervous systems able to comprehend and deal with high energy interactions other than in an "ooh, that lightning bolt was close!
We can't even see objects that flash across our visual field in less than 50 milliseconds—a duration in which, at orbital velocity, an object will have travelled on the order of half a kilometer.Module 7: Collision Costs and Preventions There are many costs associated with owning and driving a car.
The purchase of a car is only the beginning. The casualties, the costs, the wastes and the pre-occupations keep piling up, but somehow they didn't get the attention they deserve. There are countries, cultures and people throughout the world that have hatred or distrust for America and our principles.
Online Library of Liberty. at all costs. But, in the name of France & civilization, posterity have a right to expect from such men as you, from the nobler & more enlightened spirits of the time, that you should teach to your countrymen better ideas of what it is which .
Texting and Driving: Risks and Preventions Essay; Texting and Driving: Risks and Preventions Essay. texting and driving proves to substantially increase the probability of a collision, which has the ability to be prevented by a stricter enforcement of texting and driving laws. More about Texting and Driving: Risks and Preventions Essay.
However. the fiscal consequences were dissatisfactory. It is noted that the fiscal consequences are the result of standard costing system. The Lebanon Gasket Company may supply a Value Stream Profit and Loss Statement (see Exhibit 2) to see if the fiscal consequences are favourable or non.
Below is an essay on "Drivers Ed" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Module 7: Collision Costs and Preventions There are many costs associated with owning and driving a car/5(1).